Breeds (Pugs, Boston Terriers, Bull Dogs, Mastiffs and Shih Tzus) that have significantly shorter muzzles and tracheas are referred to as brachycephalic. This characteristic predisposes these breeds to respiratory difficulties such as collapsing trachea. Tracheal collapse is a condition which is characterized by loss in diameter of the airway due to changes in the structure of the trachea caused by lack of chondroitin and/or glycoproteins. The weakened cartilage allows the tracheal ring to flatten and the trachea collapses. A dry “honking” cough is characteristic of tracheal collapse. Exercise intolerance, tachypnea, or respiratory distress are common signs.¹⁹ The compounding veterinary pharmacist can combine several drugs that work synergistically to treat this condition because no one commercially available drug usually takes care of this condition. An example is a formula which combines theophylline, ephedrine, potassium iodide, phenobarbital, and isoproterenol into a flavored liquid. Drugs that suppress the respiratory system should be used very carefully...


Ear Infections in Dogs (CANINE OTITIS EXTERNA)


Canine otitis externa accounts for 10‐13% of veterinary hospital visits, according to an article in Today’s Veterinary Practice. One common characteristic among breeds that have a tendency toward this condition is pendulous pinnae, or floppy ears. It is especially common in breeds such as Spaniels and Retrievers but also seen in Terriers and Poodles.Breeds that have stenosis of the external ear canal or hirsutism can also be affected. The ears restrict proper air flow into the ear canal, which sets up a moist environment that is conducive for bacterial and fungal growth. Excessive swimming without proper drying of the ears can also set up this type of environment in the ear. This is seen in breeds such as Retrievers that are used in waterfowl hunting. Additionally, overzealous cleaning of the ears by owners trying to prevent otitis can actually predispose the canine to the condition. Atopy (atopic dermatitis, eczema, immune...

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Feather picking in pet birds is an obsessive, destructive behavior pattern whereby a bird plucks, amputates, chews or, in some other way, destroys some or most of its feathers that it can reach with its beak.


  1. Environmental: Inappropriate cage size, Lack of sunlight, stressful noises
  2. Nutritional (most common): Nutritional absence of Zn, Mg, Mn and Vitamin A
  3. Underlying Disease: Feather/Skin follicle infection
  4. Separation Anxiety: Owners are gone on vacation and bird is alone.

Nutritional Imbalances Therapies:

Nutritional absence of Zn, Mn, Mg and Vitamin A. Imbalance occurs when there are all seed diets without fruits and veggies. It is seen with all types of birds except may be raptors.

Avian Veterinary Compounding Options:

Our C-4 Veterinary Compounding Specialists at San Jose Compounding can custom compound following formulations when prescribed by a...